The Republic of Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.
Machu Picchu, a 15th-century Inca citadel, located in the Eastern Cordillera of southern Peru, on a mountain ridge 2,430m above sea level. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was constructed as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438-1472). It is the most familiar icon of the Inca civilisation. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historic Sanctuary in 1981 and a Unesco World Heritage Site in 1983. In 2007, Machu Picchu was voted one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide Internet poll. Since its discovery in 1911, growing numbers of tourists have visited the site each year, including 1,411,279 in 2017 - making it Peru's most visited tourist attraction and a major revenue generator.
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