The suspect, who cannot be named because she is a minor, is due to appear at York Magistrates Court later.
North Yorkshire Police named the victim as Katie Rough and released a picture of a smiling girl in a school uniform clapping her hands.
Officers were called on Monday afternoon to an address in the Woodthorpe area of York, and said they found Katie with life-threatening injuries at a scene nearby. She was taken to hospital but died shortly after arriving there.
The BBC reported that Katie was found on a path leading to a playing field, and published a picture of a wooded area with a white forensics tent and a police cordon. The report said flowers and cards had been placed near the field.