Religious push triggers Turkey secularism row
April 26 2016 10:53 PM
Riot police use tear gas to disperse demonstrators during a protest against parliament speaker Ismail Kahraman (above), outside the Turkish parliament in Ankara.


Turkish police fired tear gas to break up a protest yesterday over a call for the country to adopt a religious constitution that has sparked concerns of creeping Islamisation in the traditionally secular state.
Officers in riot gear clashed with a crowd of more than 100 demonstrators outside parliament, an AFP photographer reported.
The group chanted “Turkey will remain secular” as police tussled with the crowd, detaining several protesters.
“The police’s mission is to protect secularism and rights. This boy is fighting for a secular regime,” opposition MP Mahmut Tanal told officers, as he helped a dazed demonstrator stand after the police push.
The row was caused by parliament speaker Ismail Kahraman, who on Monday said that the predominantly Muslim country “must have a religious constitution”, alarming those worried the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) is boosting Islamism.
“Why should we be in a situation where we are in retreat from religion?” he said.
As speaker, Kahraman is overseeing efforts to draft a new text.
“For one thing, the new constitution should not have secularism,” Kahraman said, according to videos of his speech published by Turkish media. “It needs to discuss religion ... It should not be irreligious, this new constitution, it should be a religious constitution.”
He said the current charter was already religious because it declared Islamic holidays as public holidays, even if fails to cite “Allah” once.
Turkish society has been divided on the subject since the 1920s when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk transformed the former Ottoman Empire into a secular nation-state, separating Islamic law from secular law.
He created a modern republic, enforcing reforms from the emancipation of women to the abolition of all Islamic institutions.
But Turkey, which once had large Christian minorities, is now 99% Muslim, and critics of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan have accused him of trying to Islamise society.
Kahraman’s comments were booed by MPs from Turkey’s main opposition Republican People’s Party (CHP), the staunchly secularist party founded by Ataturk.
CHP leader Kemal Kilicdaroglu said a secular constitution was “a guarantor of all faiths. It means freedom of religion and conscience” and accused Kahraman of “abusing religion for your dirty calculations”.
The party’s parliamentary group leader, Levent Gok, called on Kahraman to resign immediately.
Shortly afterwards, Kahraman released a statement saying that he had been expressing his own opinion, not that of the party.
Mustafa Sentop, a senior AKP member who heads a parliamentary commission on constitutional reform, said a draft text retained the precept of secularism and his party had not even discussed removing it.
Since the AKP’s re-election in November, the government has said it wants to revamp Turkey’s 1982 constitution, drafted by the military junta which took power after a 1980 coup.
Several attempts so far have fallen flat, with opposition parties rejecting a move which would give Erdogan sweeping powers.
But Kahraman’s comments worried defenders of the constitution who fear the government is intensifying its campaign.
The AKP holds 317 of the 550 seats in parliament and needs 330 votes in order to hold a referendum on proposed constitutional changes, leaving it with 13 votes to find.
“These statements are going to complicate efforts towards a new constitution,” a senior AKP official told Reuters. “We will have to convey very clearly to the public that such an approach is not being considered. But frankly, after yesterday’s statement, it is not going to be easy.”
Over the past two years, the government’s Islamic push has seen it lift bans on women and girls wearing headscarves in schools and the civil service.
It has also limited alcohol sales and made efforts to ban mixed-sex dorms at state universities.
Early plans to criminalise adultery were only dropped as part of Turkey’s overtures to the European Union on membership.
Figen Yuksekdag, co-chair for the leftist Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP), said that the religious line was a red herring.
“They are trying to cover the draft constitution with the holiness of religion in order to pass a constitution that includes the presidential system in a referendum,” in a move to greatly extend Erdogan’s reach, she said.
“The people of Turkey won’t be deceived and won’t fall for this lie,” she added.
Turkey is overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, but one-fifth of its 78mn population is estimated to be Alevi, which draws from Shia, Sufi and Anatolian folk traditions.
Turkey is also home to about 100,000 Christians and 17,000 Jews.
A Pew survey from 2013 showed 12% of Turks want Shariah to be official law.

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