‘You have better knowledge of your worldly affairs’
December 04 2020 01:14 AM
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The Prophets of Allah are the elite of humankind and the most honourable of all people in the sight of Allah, The Exalted. He chose them and entrusted them with conveying His Religion to His Creation. He Says (what means): {Those are the ones to whom We gave the Scripture and authority and prophethood.} [Qur’an 6:89] He also Says (what means): {Those are the ones whom Allah has guided, so from their guidance take an example.} [Qur’an 6:90] The Muslim Ummah unanimously agreed that the Messengers of Allah, may Allah exalt their mention, are infallible with regard to conveying the divine revelation, and this essentially means that they never lie, forget, or make mistakes in this regard.
Al-Qaadhi ‘Iyaadh, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “The Prophets of Allah are free of all physical and moral deficiencies.” Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “The Qur’anic verses that establish the prophethood of the Prophets of Allah indicate that they were infallible with regard to communicating the divine revelation. This means that whatever divine revelation they conveyed was unquestionably the truth, and this is the very essence of prophethood.” Ibn Hajar, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “The infallibility of the Prophets of Allah, may Allah exalt their mention, means guarding them against all imperfections, distinguishing them with aspects of spiritual perfection, and blessing them with support and steadfastness in all matters, as well as sending down serenity upon them.”
The Ijtihaad (personal reasoning) of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention), that proved to be erroneous or not optimum does not violate his infallibility in the slightest, because he was supported with the divine revelation. Whenever his Ijtihaad was correct, he did not receive any remark or correction from Allah, The Exalted, and this serves as an approval from Allah of his Ijtihaad and indicates that it is obligatory to follow his Ijtihaad in this regard. However, if his Ijtihaad proved to be not optimum, the divine revelation came to correct it, clarifying what was optimum in that regard (like the incident regarding the prisoners of war in the Battle of Badr).
In fact, such divine remark and correction render the Ijtihaad of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, part of the divine revelation and a binding ruling that must be obeyed and entails that its violation is forbidden. This is the key difference between the Ijtihaad of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and that of the scholars of his nation. As for his Ijtihaad and personal opinions on worldly matters, and the incidents where they proved to be erroneous (or not optimum), it does not contradict his prophethood and infallibility in any way. This is because it is conceivable that the Prophets and Messengers of Allah might err with regard to worldly matters, and this does not undermine their prophethood, nor does it contradict their infallibility.
Some sceptics who promote doubts about the Sunnah of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and his infallibility brought forth as evidence the incident when he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, gave his personal opinion on the artificial pollination of palm trees in Madinah and that it later proved to be wrong. It was narrated on the authority of Raafi‘ ibn Khadeej, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: “When the Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, came to Madinah, the people had been artificially pollinating the palm trees. He said: ‘What are you doing?’ They said: ‘We are used to doing this,’ whereupon he said: ‘Perhaps if you do not do that it would be good.’ So they abandoned this practice, and then there was a decline in the produce. They mentioned that to him, so he said: ‘I am only human; whenever I command you to do something pertaining to your religion, adhere to it, and whenever I command you to do something out of my personal opinion, then (keep in mind) that I am only human.’” [Muslim]
Anas ibn Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, passed by some people who were artificially pollinating palm trees and said: “If you do not do so, it will still come out right.” The dates came out of poor quality. Afterward, he happened to pass by them, and said: “What has gone wrong with your palm trees?” They said, “You said such-and-such (and we acted upon your advice).” He said: “You are more knowledgeable of your own worldly affairs.” [Muslim]
In the version narrated by Talhah ibn ‘Ubaydillah, may Allah be pleased with him, the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “If that benefits them, then let them do it (artificially pollinate the palm trees). It was an assumption on my part, so do not blame me for an assumption, but whenever I convey to you anything from Allah (divine revelation), adhere to it; I would never tell a lie about Allah.” [Muslim]
The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, did not intend to change their practice of pollinating palm trees, but it was rather Ijtihaad on his part regarding a worldly matter that could be right or wrong. This is evidenced by what he said in the version of the Hadith narrated by Talhah ibn ‘Ubaydillah, may Allah be pleased with him: “If that benefits them, then let them do it. It was only an assumption on my part, so do not blame me for an assumption...”
The Companions mistakenly assumed that he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, forbade them from this practice based on divine revelation. Then he explained to them that whenever he communicated divine revelation to them, he would never err with regard to it. This is why he said to them: “…whenever I convey to you anything from Allah, adhere to it; I would never tell a lie about Allah.” Lying here means making a mistake; meaning: I would never make mistakes with regard to the divine revelation I convey. It is not conceivable that the Hadith should mean lying in its literal sense because he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, was infallible against it even if he were conveying from other than Allah. Therefore, he said in the Hadith narrated by Raafi‘ ibn Khadeej: “I am only human; whenever I command you to do something pertaining to your religion, adhere to it, and whenever I command you to do something out of my personal opinion, (keep in mind that) I am only human.”
In his commentary on these Ahaadith, Al-Munaawi, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “His saying (I am only human) means that he is equal to them in humanity and not with regard to (his authority in) religious matters. This is a reference to the Saying of Allah, The Exalted (which means): {Say, I am but a man like yourselves, (but) I receive revelation...} [Qur’an 18:110]  He, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, was equal to humans in his humanity, but he was distinguished from them with the duty of conveying the Divine Message.
His statement: ‘whenever I command you to do something pertaining to your religion, adhere to it,’ means: If I command you to do what benefits you with regard to your religion, then comply with it because it is always the truth and it is always correct.’ His statement: ‘and whenever I command you to do something out of my personal opinion, (keep in mind that) I am only human,’  means: If I command you to do something pertinent to worldly matters, then I am a human being; my personal opinion on worldly matters may be right or wrong. This is because a human being is prone to forgetfulness and error. By ‘opinion’ here, he, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, meant personal opinion on worldly matters.”

An-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy upon him, compiled the Ahaadith about the artificial pollination of palm trees cited in Saheeh Muslim under the title: “Chapter on the Obligation of Compliance to His Commands Regarding Religious Matters rather than His Personal Opinions on Worldly Matters”. In this chapter, he commented on the Hadith reading, ‘You are more knowledgeable of your own worldly affairs,’ saying: “Scholars said that it means you are more aware of the worldly matters rather than those pertaining to legislation (and Shari‘ah). As for what he said based on his Ijtihaad and declared it to be part of the Shari‘ah, it is obligatory to act upon it. The pollination of palm trees does not fall under this category but rather the one mentioned before it ...
Scholars said: His saying was not a statement but rather an assumption, as he clarified in the other versions of the Hadith. They said that his personal opinion and assumption on worldly matters are like those of any other person, and therefore it is conceivable that something like this should happen, and it does not imply any deficiency.” Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “He did not forbid them from pollination, but they made the mistake of assuming that he forbade them from it.”
Shaykh Ahmad Shaakir, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “The Hadith is clear and explicit and does not conflict with any other text, nor does it contradict his infallibility with regard to his Ijtihaad. It does not indicate that the Sunnah cannot be brought forth as adducible evidence on all matters, nor does it support their claims that the Prophetic Sunnah in its totality is not part of the divine revelation ... Rather, in the Hadith about the pollination of palm trees, he said to them that he did not believe there was a need for that. So he neither commanded nor forbade anything, and he was not conveying divine revelation or establishing an act of Sunnah. Therefore, there are no grounds for expanding the scope of this meaning to the extent of using it as a means to demolish the fundamentals of legislation!”
Our Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, was infallible from erring in what he conveyed to us from Allah, The Exalted, and not with regard to his personal opinions on worldly matters that might have been right or wrong. A Muslim believes with certainty in the infallibility of the Prophets and Messengers of Allah, on top of whom comes our Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. Therefore, we should be extremely mindful and beware of those who seek to challenge and raise doubts about the Sunnah by saying that the opinions of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, on worldly matters might have been wrong and that some of the Shari‘ah rulings that he conveyed to us were actually based on his personal Ijtihaad that might have been right or wrong as well! This is a false claim and groundless misconception, and this is why Allah, The Exalted, Says (what means): {Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination.* It is not but a revelation revealed.} [Qur’an 53:3-4]
Al-Baghawi, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “It means that he never spoke falsehood.” As-Sa‘di, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “It means that his speech does not emanate from his personal inclination but rather followed the guidance and Taqwa that Allah has revealed to him with regard to his own affairs and those of others. This indicates that the Sunnah is part of the divine revelation from Allah to His Messenger, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa salla. He Says (what means): {And Allah has revealed to you the Book and wisdom…} [Qur’an 4:113] (Wisdom here is a reference to the Sunnah). It also indicates that he was infallible with regard to what he conveyed from Allah, The Exalted, and His Shari‘ah because he did not speak from personal inclination but rather from a revelation revealed. Allah, The Exalted, Says (what means): {And whatever the Messenger has given you – take; and what he has forbidden you – refrain from.} [Qur’an 59:7] 
Ibn Katheer, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “It means that whatever he commanded you to do, do it, and whatever he forbade you from doing, avoid it; for he only commands you to do what is good, and he only forbids you from what is evil.” The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “I have left you with that which, if you hold on to it, you will never go astray; the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet.” [Al-Haakim, Al-Albaani: authentic] The Prophetic Sunnah is the rescue ship and the key to deliverance; whoever boards it will be saved, and whoever fails to do so will drown. Az-Zuhri may Allah have mercy upon him said: “Our early scholars used to say, ‘Adherence to the Sunnah is salvation.’”
Maalik, may Allah have mercy upon him, said: “The Sunnah is (like) Noah’s Ark; whoever boards it survives, and whoever fails to do so drowns.” Obviously, his saying, “You are more knowledgeable of your own worldly affairs,” does not apply to the religious matters, Shari‘ah, obligations, and prohibitions. It rather means: ‘You, who artificially pollinate palm trees, and others like you who practice different professions in industry, agriculture, and the various crafts, are more knowledgeable of your (respective) areas of specialisation than me.’ Al-Munaawi, may Allah have mercy upon him, said in Fath Al-Qadeer: “It means that you know about your worldly affairs more than I do, and I know about the affairs of your afterlife more than you do; because the Prophets and Messengers were sent to save people from wretchedness in the Hereafter and help them win eternal bliss.”
Article source: http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/

Fever: A blessing in disguise
Fever wipes out one’s sins and rids his body from dead substances and germs. It is a blessing in disguise.
The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention), said: “When a believer gets sick or feverish, it is like metal when put on fire, the bad is gone and the good remains.” [Al-Bayhaqi]
He, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, also describes the intensity of fever by saying: “Fever is coal from hell, get rid of it by using cold water.” [Ibn Majah]
The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, forbade the cursing of fever by saying: “Do not curse a fever because it abolishes sins like fire abolishes dirt from iron.” [Ibn Majah]

What is fever?
The increase of body temperature caused by bacterial or viral infection is called fever. A bacterial or viral infection usually raises the temperature of a person, antibiotics are useless with viral infections, such as the influenza and the common cold, although the patient might sweat and have a very high fever.
Fever occurs when the body temperature level rises above the normal level of 37C (98F). There is an area in the brain (an area that lies over the pituitary gland in the front of the head) which is a temperature regulator.
When a germ enters the body, it starts secreting toxins. Toxins affect the temperature regulator causing its temperature to rise. The substances that cause this rise in temperature are called pyrogens. Pyrogens are caused not only by germs but also by the ruined tissues in the body after being affected with germs.
When the temperature rises in the temperature regulator, the rest of the body has to comply. It increases its temperature in response. Soon, the whole body feels feverish and the patient’s temperature rises. This explains the saying of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, when he described the believers in their kindness and affections like the body. If a part of it suffers from a germ or a virus, like inflammation in the respiratory pathways or inflammation of the urinary tracts and others, all of the body suffers from fever and restlessness.
Yes the whole body suffers. The whole body has a rise in temperature and not only where it is affected. When the inflammation worsens, the germs increase and consequently ruin the tissues. The germs and the pyrogens will find the body’s defense system ready to attack and eat the by-products of the germs and rid the body of them. While doing this, it releases to the body fluids a substance called leukocyte pyrogens or endogenous. Therefore the fever remains while the body is cleansing itself from the by-products.
Didn’t the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, say, when a man cursed the fever: “Don’t curse it because it abolishes sins like fire abolishes dirt from iron.”
It is a cleansing of our sins, a cleansing of dead substances such as dead tissue and the by-products of the germs, like fire cleans the dirt from iron.
The famous book on physiology by Guyton, 1992 edition, stated that an amount equal to one over 10 billionth of a gram of endogenous is enough for a fever to occur.
Such a small amount of a substance secreted in the body due to a very small germ or a virus is enough to transfer a person form being healthy, to becoming sick, feverish and bed ridden.
Recent scientific studies have shown that this leukocyte pyrogens cause fever by making a substance called prostaglandin in the local glands in the area of the hypothalamus. When the growth of this kind of prostaglandin is inhibited, by using medicines, the fever is reduced. This explains how aspirin reduces fever. It inhibits the growth of prostaglandin and prevents its making.
The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “For every ailment, there is a cure. If the cure reaches the ailment, it is cured by the will of Allah.” [Muslim]
That explains the known phenomena that aspirin does not reduce the temperature of a normal person who is not feverish. That is because he does not have these endogenous in his body to work on the hypothalamus.

How do chills occur and why?
The temperature level in the temperature regulator rises suddenly form its normal level to a higher level, due to damage in the tissues, due to the release of temperature generating substances or due to dehydration. When this happens, the body temperature rises within a few hours to attain the new temperature.
During this period, the patient shivers and feels cold, even though the body temperature is high, because blood vessels in the skin contract. The chills remain until the body temperature reaches the new level set by the temperature regulator.
When the body temperature reaches that level, the chills stop and the patient feels neither warm nor cold. As long as the infection continues and the reason for the rise in temperature continues, the body temperature remains at this new level until Allah permits recovery.

What is the cure for fever?
The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, tells us to reduce the fever with water. The same is still applied today. Putting cold pads on a patient’s forehead is still used in a lot of hospitals and by doctors even though fever reducing medicines are abundant, like aspirin, paracetamol (or acetaminophen, which is the active ingredient in Tylenol) and others.
Using water to reduce fevers is not limited to using cold pads. Drinking a lot of fluids is also helpful. This is also understood from the wordings of the Prophetic narration: “cool it with water.” Water is either what the patient drinks, what is given intravenously or what the patient puts on his face or body to cool the fever.
We have seen a lot of patients where fever reducing medicines (antipyretics) were not effective with their rising fever. At the same time, cold water had an immediate effect. That’s why pediatricians advise parents to take a child’s clothes off and give a lot of fluids if a fever occurs. An antipyretic might also be give like paracetamol. Aspirin has been banned for children under 12 years of age.
[Imam Ibn Al-Qayyim may Allah have mercy upon him said: “I remember once, when I was feverish, a poet cursing the fever, saying:
The sin purifier has visited and left.
How evil it is when visiting and when leaving
She asked while getting ready to leave What do you want?
I replied, to never come again.
I said, shame on him, he cursed what the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, forbade to be cursed. If he had said:
The severe-sin cleanser has visited.
Greetings to it while visiting and while leaving
She asked while getting ready to leave What do you want?
I replied, to not leave.
It would have been better for him and it still would have left.”]

Article source: http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/


Are you a good neighbour?
If you are not giving your neighbours their due rights, then you are missing an important part of your duties as a Muslim.  
A neighbour is someone who lives in the same neighbourhood as you; he could be a friend, but does not necessarily have to be one. The definition of a neighbour can have various meanings; for example, it can refer to someone who lives directly beside you, as the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, (may Allah exalt his mention) said: “One must not prevent his neighbour from placing his wood against his wall.” [Al-Bukhari].
However, it can also refer to someone living further away, since the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “No obligatory Salaah (prayer) is accepted from a neighbour of the Masjid (mosque) except if it is offered in the Masjid.” 
Present-day examples would include machines and equipment that emit disturbing noises. If people do anything on their property that is disturbing or harmful to their neighbours, then they must remove the cause of the disturbance. 
It is permissible for people to build a house on their own property, even up against their neighbour’s wall – but only if they have no other choice and only if their neighbour is not harmed by it in any way. Even in such cases, they should still ask their neighbour’s permission beforehand. 
If they are denied permission, their neighbour may be legally compelled to grant them permission by the proper authorities. The proof for this is in a Hadith related by Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “You must not prevent your neighbour from putting his wood on your wall.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]. 
If the flow of water becomes blocked on a farm, perhaps due to wastefulness and subsequently bursts out, causing damage to neighbouring farms, the neighbours may come up with proposals to channel or dam the water and irrigate the farm. If the wasteful farmer refuses to comply with them, the ruling is the same as in the following case of a damaged wall. 
If a wall between two properties is damaged, the owners of one property can ask the owners of the other to participate in rebuilding it. If they refuse, they can be compelled to do so. Likewise, they can be compelled to help demolish the wall if it is expected to collapse. 
The owners of the highest buildings in an area must construct screens to prevent themselves from overlooking their neighbour’s properties. Likewise, whoever wishes to utilise their roof should make sure that they cannot see into their neighbour’s properties and erect a screen for this purpose if necessary. 
Whoever owns some property, but cannot reach it without causing damage to a neighbour’s property is forbidden to cause the damage. Instead, the authorities should endeavour to arrange matters in a way that prevents harm to either party. 
Thus, even though our neighbours may be Muslim or non-Muslims – each are equally entitled to their rights according to our religion. Sometimes we may find it hard to reach out to our non-Muslim neighbours, but it is an obligation upon us, and it can also be one of the best forms of Da’wah (call to Islam) we can give.
Article source: http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/



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