Hundreds of miles away from family and friends facing an attack by Turkey, Kurdish and Arab forces deployed in the eastern Syrian desert against jihadists have become increasingly frustrated.
US-backed militias in Syria said they have formed a joint military centre with the Iraqi army to protect their common border region after ousting Islamic State militants.
US-backed forces took full control of Raqqa from the Islamic State group on Tuesday, defeating the last jihadist holdouts in the de facto Syrian capital of their now-shattered "caliphate".
Among the ruins of a street in Syria's Raqqa, an anti-jihadist fighter's call echoes from a loudspeaker: "Civilians, we are waiting for you to leave to safety."
Intensified coalition air strikes supporting an assault by US-backed forces on Islamic State's stronghold of Raqqa in Syria are causing a "staggering loss of civilian life", United Nations war crimes investigators said on Wednesday.
A US-backed alliance of Arab-Kurdish forces entered the key jihadist-held town of Tabqa on Monday as they pursued their campaign against the Islamic State group in northern Syria.
US-backed fighters have advanced to the edge of a key jihadist-held town in northern Syria, a monitor said Saturday.
A US-backed alliance of militias has made unexpectedly rapid gains against Islamic State near its Syrian headquarters in Raqqa, advancing to within a few kilometres of a major dam, its spokesman said.
US-backed Kurdish-Arab forces launched an offensive Sunday on the Islamic State group's de facto Syrian capital Raqa, upping pressure on the jihadists who are already battling Iraqi troops in Mosul.